The coffee that we drink is made from ground and roast coffee and can be prepared in a number of ways:

Filter or drip coffee: This is made by using a paper or reusable cone shaped unit. Finely ground coffee is put into this cone shaped unit and boiling water is then poured over it. The ready to drink brew filters through this into a pot and the coffee grounds remain in the cone. These days electric filter coffee machines are used to make filter coffee.

The plunger or cafetiereTM method: This is created from coarsely ground coffee that is placed in a pot. Extremely hot water is added to the grounds and the brew is stirred. This is allowed to steep for around five minutes and then the plunger is pushed down to separate the coffee grounds from the infusion.

Espresso machines: Well, these force hot water under pressure through some extremely finely ground coffee. This is collected in the cups below. This allows for significant flavor and aroma that can be extracted with low quantities of water. Espresso coffee generally has a top layer of crema, which is creamy and fine foam.

Swedish/Scandinavian brewed coffee: This is made by boiling ground coffee in water. The coffee is served without filtering. It is extremely strong and is often kept hot for consumption throughout the day.

Turkish coffee: This is made in a small copper pot with a long handle – which is called the ibriq. It is prepared by boiling two teaspoons of finely-groundcoffee and one teaspoon of sugar with a cup of water. The ibriq is taken off the heat as it comes to the boil, usually three times. The coffee is then poured out and drunk. Some people add a cardamom seed for flavor.

Coffee can be further elaborated to suit individual tastes, some people add milk, some add sugar and the others add frothed milk and flavoring syrups.


Instant coffee, also called soluble coffee, is prepared from coffee beans that have been roasted and ground. These ground beans are then extracted with hot water in order to recover the aroma and flavor of coffee. This coffee extract can be dried by either of the two methods:


In in this process, the coffee extract is sprayed into a course of hot air at the top of a tall cylindrical tower. The droplets dry as they fall and convert into a fine powder as they reach the bottom. The powder is then texturized into granules. This aids in dissolution as well as dosage. The fast drying preserves the quality of the aroma and the flavor. Today, spray-drying is the most commonly used drying process.


This process involves freezing the coffee extract to about – 40°C. This is then converted into granules. The frozen granules are then dried under vacuum and at extremely low temperature. This protects the flavor and aroma. The soluble coffee is finally packaged into sachets or glass jars.


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